Conflict resolution in African countries. Africa as a continent is endowed with enough resources to keep the world moving for years. It is indeed the resources from Africa that brought industrialization to life; ranging from raw materials to labor.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. While the source of the conflict may be political, social, economic or religious, the individuals in conflict must expressly fight for their ethnic group's position within society. This final criterion differentiates ethnic conflict from other forms of struggle.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN AFRICA: CHALLENGES FOR THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY BY Ibrahim Alhassan CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.Man from the earliest times has always lived in societies each with its peculiarities. But a common variable had been the scarce economic resources he has to contend with and which often times threaten his survival.
Although the vast majority of Africans live in peace with their neighbors, life has been nasty, brutish, and short for millions of others who live in ill-fated parts of the continent where Hobbesian civil wars have recently raged. These conflicts are the focus of two useful collections, one primarily descriptive, the other organized around the prescriptive theme of institutional reform.
Inter-ethnic conflicts in Africa are fascinating cases to study; many social scientists have done different empirical researches to identify the sources of ethnic strife. Most efforts to analyze ethnic conflict have employed grievance based models, which emphasize economic, political, and social deprivation or discrimination as sources of conflicts (Blanton, Mason, Athow 2001).
Endnotes. i.) In Small and Singer’s (1982) typology of a civil war, post-apartheid South Africa could be described as fighting a civil war. Collier and Hoeffler (1998: 567) give a summary of Small and Singer’s criteria, “First, one of the primary actors in any conflict identified as a civil war must be the national government in power at the time hostilities begin.
Although some scholars on conflict in Africa (Obasanjo 1991, Anyang’ Nyong’o 1991 and Msabaha 1991) agree that conflict in Africa stems primarily from crises of national governance and from the failure of governmental institutions in African countries to mediate conflict, this article engages the colonial factor as the root of many conflicts in Africa.
Post-Colonial African Conflict. After World War II, the people of Africa fought to end the effects of European imperialism to achieve political independence and reclaim African culture. After many years of being controlled by Europeans, Africa gradually gained independence following World War II.
This has been the case in Nigeria and several multi-ethnic states of Africa (Osaghae 1994). Although the foregoing theoretical discussion has focused on ethnicity, the term ethno-religious is adopted because some of the recent violent conflicts to be examined were triggered by religious issues.
Ethnic Group ( Java Banyumasan: Orang Jawa of Malaysia ) In this essay, I write about ethnic group and why we cannot define an ethnic group by their cultural elements such as language, religion, customs and so on. I write this essay because there is a question about why we cannot define an ethnic group by their culture, whereas culture are one elements of an ethnic.
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African ethnic divisions are quite real, but have little to do with ancient or primitive forms of identity or conflict. Rather, ethnic divisiveness in Africa takes intensely modern forms. It takes place most often in urban settings, or in relations of rural communities to national states.
Ethnic Groups in Conflict Donald L. Horowitz Drawing material from dozens of divided societies, Donald L. Horowitz constructs his theory of ethnic conflict, relating ethnic affiliations to kinship and intergroup relations to the fear of domination.
Although peace and pacifism are familiar ideas to most students today, for much of human history these concepts have been relegated to the religious domain and excluded from the study and practice of politics. 1 At the same time, war--organized violent conflict between different groups of people--has traditionally been considered a natural occurrence, based on popular assumptions about the.
South Africa and Conflict Resolution in Africa 27 that made the negotiated settlement possible do not exist elsewhere (Shillinger 2009, Solomon 2010). What made the negotiations in South Africa to succeed was, among other things, the continuous existence of a strong state. But in much of the rest of the continent we have weak.Abstract. What is the role of culture in the analysis of ethnic conflict? The power of cultural models of behavior and their value for the development of a comparative (and crosscultural) political psychology lies in their specification of cross-level links to explain collective behavior through individual-level learning mechanisms and the internalization of world views.Conflict in Africa; Ethnic Conflict and Democratization in Africa.. Although the vast majority of Africans live in peace with their neighbors, life has been nasty, brutish,. The essays in Glickman's collection center on ethnicity as a factor in civil strife.